School Age

All Articles in the Category ‘School Age’

Hot Days: Why Children Are At Particular Risk

Hiking on a hot dayEven here in the cool Pacific Northwest the summer months can send temperatures soaring into the 80’s, 90’s and 100’s. Hot for any average adult, but potentially even more dangerous for young children. Our country is currently experiencing rolling heat waves. Thing is, children heat up faster than adults (five times faster) because they have fewer sweat glands, their body-to-surface ratio is different (their sweating would never do as much good) and this combination makes it more difficult for children to regulate internal temperatures. Couple this physiology with children’s inability to tell us they’re HOT (infants/toddlers) or the instincts of a child or teen athlete (who may not know limits or want to regulate activity) and it can sometimes lead to overheating.

Heat is different for children than adults. They are at particular risk for two reasons: their dependency and their judgment.

Frankly, I worry most about children being left or trapped in hot cars this time of year. Ten children have already died this year in the U.S. after being trapped in a car that can heat up like a cooking oven. Yesterday, with millions of Americans on heat advisories, NBC national news showed footage of bystanders this week breaking glass to save a child left in a hot car. Even though everyone seems to believe it won’t happen to them, about 3 dozen children die each year (primarily during the summer) after getting forgotten or trapped in a car that heats up. If you think you’re too smart for it to happen to you or your family read this — a piece I’ve called the most devastating article around.

The majority of these children are 2 years old or younger. Children this young have very little control over their environment, so it’s up to us to ensure that they are safe  ~ Dr Tony Woodward, Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician

Why Children Die Quickly In Hot Cars:

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School Is Out, Head Lice May Still Be Around

Head LiceThey’re a little gross, somewhat annoying and for most parents, inevitable. It also seems to me that for most of us they show up at the most inconvenient times. I’m talking about lice. With school coming to an end this month, you may think your child’s chances of picking up the little bugs will diminish. Unfortunately, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) most cases of lice occur outside school. Between summer camp, sports and play dates there are still plenty of opportunities for lice to take shelter on the head of at least one family member. They’re certainly no picnic to deal with and they can also be unwittingly contagious during the school years. Clearly there’s nothing to be ashamed of when discovering lice but it doesn’t always feel that way. New guidelines from the AAP out last month offer some tips for getting your family lice-free as quickly as possible. Acting fast with a plan often diminishes all sorts of anxiety and discomfort for all. Read full post »

What To Do If Your Child Is Drowning: School-Age & Teens

6-2 boy swimmingThis is part two of the “What To Do If Your Child Is Drowning” series. Read about infants/toddlers here.

The purpose of these posts is to find out what you should do if you realize your child is actually drowning or struggling in the water rather than repeat the warnings of how to prevent it. I want to put a couple thoughts and tools in your hands to know WHAT to do if faced with an emergency.

Dr. Linda Quan, an emergency attending physician and drowning expert at Seattle Children’s shares information on what to do if you come upon a school-age child or teenager who is drowning. Preparing for this can help boost awareness and response if ever you support or discover a child in need for rescue.

Keep Your Own Safety In Mind

One of the most important things to be aware of if you see an older child or teen drowning is they are usually in water that is deeper and poses more risk to the rescuer. Always take time to consider personal risks before attempting a rescue. This requisite step plays counter to our instincts to act fast as parents and guardians of children…but I can’t overstate this. The size and strength of the child who is drowning should always be taken into consideration. Children and teens can be large enough to actually drown the rescuer.  Dr. Quan says,

For this age, the “Throw or Reach” rule is the key safest rescue action.

Reach to the child with something they can grab (a stick, paddle or your hands), only if you’re in a safe place and not at risk of being pulled in by the victim. Alternatively, you can throw something that floats (a life jacket, ball or safety ring) toward the child. Do not jump in to the water to rescue a drowning child or teen unless you are trained to do so. Only those who are experienced in water rescue and have some type of floatation with them should go into the water to perform a rescue.

If possible, get your child or teen comfortable in the water. If they have had some experience in water it might be easier for them to overcome panic and either reach for a flotation device or flip over, float and breathe.

If You Think A Child Or Teen Might Be In Trouble:

  1. Tell someone to call for help – a lifeguard or 9-1-1
  2. Stay well clear of the water and any incoming surf unless you are trained, qualified and equipped to make an in-water rescue in these conditions
  3. If the child has been taught to float, yell to them to flip over, float and not fight the current.
  4. Immediately throw the child who is old enough something that floats (e.g., a lifejacket, ball, body board, empty cooler with lid secured)
  5. If you can safely do so, reach to the child with something they can grab (eg., stick, paddle) – STAY out of the water.
  6. Safely remove the child from the water without endangering yourself.
  7. When you get the child to shore, if the child is conscious, provide warming and comfort. If the child continues to have any breathing trouble, such as shortness of breath, fast breathing, coughing, labored breathing or seems too tired, seek medical care immediately. If the child is unconscious, lie the child down on his back, chin up.
    1. If the child is blue or not breathing, give several rescue breaths ( mouth to mouth).
    2. If the child does not take breaths or respond on his own, start CPR (chest compressions with ventilation).
    3. After several rounds of CPR, call 911 if they have not been called yet.

To learn more about child CPR check out this article.

Allergies Run In The Family


It’s a gorgeous time of year when things are abloom. Many of us suffer from irritation and allergies to these months as pollens and particles float around and trigger allergic response.  Not so beautiful when our families (over)react to pollen. Thing is, there’s also the fact that cold season isn’t quite over and the exact cause of that runny nose your child is dealing with may be hard to decipher. One hint that it’s allergies and not a cold: do you, your spouse or any of your other children suffer from seasonal allergies? Unfortunately if so, there’s a 25% chance your child will too. That said, the likelihood more than doubles when both parents deal with allergies on a seasonal basis. Watch the video above for tips on telling the difference between hay fever & the common cold and when to be on the lookout for the former.

5-13 allergies

Allergies Or A Cold This Time Of Year

  • This is common: 1 in 5 Americans have allergies at some point in their life so allergies and over-reacting immune systems are a part of many families. Hay fever is the most common allergy in America and can easily be treated with avoidance to allergens (avoid parks when irritating pollens around and/or take a shower when you get home from the park and wipe those pollen allergens off!), OTC medications, and sometimes additional prescription medications. Most children with hay fever only need allergy medicines during seasonal bursts but some children benefit from year-long treatment because of allergies to multiple things. Here’s more on OTC medications used to treat allergies.
  • Often allergy symptoms change with age; allergy symptoms can accelerate during young childhood but then often subside and diminish as you age into adulthood. Talk with your child’s nurse, PA, or physician if you’re concerned about their symptoms or their trend in symptoms as they age.
  • Read medication labels for ingredients in allergy medications. Use the lowest dose possible to treat symptoms and talk with your child’s clinician if any questions about dosing. If your child is under age 6, check in at the physician’s office before doing a trial of an OTC antihistamine. If over-the-counter medications don’t improve symptoms or suffering, don’t panic — if the cause of symptoms are allergic there are prescriptions and many environmental changes you can make to improve your child’s discomfort.

5-13 know your OTCsThis post was written in partnership with knowyourOTCs.org. In exchange for our ongoing partnership helping families understand how to use (and dispose of!) OTC (over-the-counter) medicines safely they have made a contribution to Digital Health at Seattle Children’s for our work in innovation. I like the Know Your OTCs tagline, “Take your healthcare personally.” You can follow @KnowYourOTCs #KnowYourOTCs for more info on health and wellness. 

 

 

Power Of A Kiss And Family Oral Health

Image courtesy: American Dental Association

Image courtesy: American Dental Association

Oral health doesn’t start and end with the dentist. Times are changing as the Washington Dental Service Foundation has trained 1,600 pediatricians and family physicians throughout the state on the importance of oral hygiene in young children. Pediatricians are now applying fluoride during well-child check-ups and counseling families more comprehensively on how to prevent dental decay while also referring to dentists for prevention and acute dental problems. Just last month I attended the 1-1/2 hour oral health training with a pediatric dentist. That learning coupled with a new policy statement from The American Academy of Pediatrics highlighting the importance of oral health inspired me to get the word out. I suspect we can all do a bit better protecting our children’s mouths. Recommendations for fluoridated toothpaste have recently changed (use it with the very first baby tooth!) as has knowledge and reminders about how we share our bacteria with our children. What we do for our mouth may have direct effects on our children’s.

The Most Common Chronic Childhood Disease

  • The facts about oral health in children are a little surprising. By their first birthday 8% of toddlers have cavities in their mouth and the Pediatrics policy detailed 24% 2-4 year-olds, 53% 6-8 year-olds and 56% 15 year-olds also have dental disease. Since oral health (even in babies and toddlers) is an integral part of overall health of children this is problematic. Dental disease has strong links between diabetes, respiratory infections and heart disease. The numbers for children with dental disease are high (!!) which makes dental disease the most common infection of childhood.
  • Good news is much of this disease can be prevented (or corrected) and because infants and young children see the pediatrician more frequently than the dentist, it’s becoming clear that pediatricians need to hone skills on oral health, the disease process, prevention and dentist interventions when necessary.

4 Things I Learned About Oral Health

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Enterovirus D68 And Some Old Reminders

girl in mask (1)Widespread news coverage over the last 24 hours has heightened concerns by many parents about a severe-symptom viral infection causing respiratory illness in children, predominately in the Midwest. Over the last month there has been a dramatic up-spike in children hospitalized with severe cold symptoms and wheezing. The virus isn’t new, but its effect on children seems to be. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has confirmed tests on children both in Kansas City and Chicago pinpointing the triggering virus as enterovirus D68. The biggest burden of illness has been in the Kansas City and Chicago areas where dozens of children were hospitalized daily, but there are reports of infections documented in about 10 additional states to date. The CDC report issued yesterday detailed data from their investigations

Of the tested and confirmed cases from Kansas City, their ages ranged from 6 weeks to 16 years, with a median of 4 years. Nearly 70 percent of patients had a previous history of asthma or wheezing. Of the Chicago group, ages ranged from 20 months to 15 years with a median of 5 years. Nearly three-quarters had a history of asthma or wheezing.

No question the illness has taken many by surprise as it’s an unusual time of year to see huge numbers of children with cold symptoms with severe wheezing. In areas where the infections started to pop up, schools been in session for a month or more so kids have been doing what they do best, playing in close contact and exchanging germs… Read full post »

Shifting To An Ideal Bedtime For School

We know children are sleeping less now than they did 30 years ago. Our children are unfortunately more tired and can suffer side effects in life because of it. Studies show that school-age children who create a sleep debt (chronic sleep deprivation) and are chronically tired have a more difficult time completing school work, they don’t score as well on tests, they may be more distractible, they can have difficulty maintaining attention, and they may be at higher risk for having an unhealthy weight. Even if your kids have already started school, you can provide a boost for your child’s attention, mood, and health by focusing in on sleep.

Starting out the year with better habits can help everyone at home (ahem, wouldn’t it be nice to avoid late evening battles?). If you’re not already there, think about moving to ideal bedtimes during the next couple of weeks.

How Much Sleep Do Children Need?

Sleep debt is created when we don’t sleep enough — it causes kids to crave “catch-up” sleep like those after-school naps, sleeping in until noon on the weekends, or falling asleep in the carpool on the way home. That being said, each child’s sleep need can be a bit different but in general children need:

  1. sleep needsPreschoolers: 11-12 hours of total sleep
  2. School-age children: 10-11 hours total sleep
  3. 12 year-old to teens: 8 1/2-10 hours total sleep

5 Ways To Support Good Sleep

  • Keep to an 8pm bedtime for young children. Move bedtime back slowly (move it by 30 minutes every 3-5 days) to prime your child for success and avoid battles!
  • 10pm bedtime for children age 12 & up is age-appropriate. More info here.
  • Habits: No screens 1-2 hours prior to bed, no caffeine after school, no food right before bed.
  • Exercise or move 30-60 minutes a day to help kids sleep easier
  • No sleeping with cell phones (create a docking station in the kitchen)
  • Don’t use OTC medications (cough & cold, for example) to knock your kids out and get them to sleep. Using medications that have a side effect of drowsiness can cause sleepiness to extend into daytime which can negatively affect school and sports performance.

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On Motion Sickness

I really love this TEDEd video explaining motion sickness. What I find most helpful is the admission that we humans still know very little about motion sickness, why gender differences exist (women get motion disturbance more often than men), and how to put a stop to it. No question children get motion sickness well before they’re old enough to tell us exactly how they feel. Often it’s screaming or fussing only in the car or a series of vomiting episodes that clues us in. A few tips for families, planning that last-minute summer road trip, to help support children who are prone to get sick in the car, on the train, at the park, or up in the air during a bumpy ride.

Motion Sickness In Children

  • Disconnect: Know that motion sickness comes about when there is a disconnect between what our eyes see, what the fluid in our inner ears knows about our position and direction, what our skin senses, and what our muscles feel while we’re positioned wherever we are. This disconnect in all these sensors around our body leaves the brain “confused” and for unknown reasons we’re left feeling nauseated, uneasy or achy. This can happen quickly and can happen even on a swing at the park. It really doesn’t take a jet airplane or an automobile driving quickly on a curvy road to elicit this unease and malaise. This can happen in the back yard! There’s often another disconnect, for those who don’t get motion sickness there is often little insight into how horrible a child or adult can feel while experiencing this. This reality, of course, only increases the displeasure for the person ill. But know this, some experts observe that everyone, given enough mismatch and motion–say a group of people in a life-raft in turbulent seas–will get sick from motion.
  • Common: Motion sickness is fairly common with most reports stating that 1/4 to 1/3 of adults may experience it. In school-age children, a recent European study found the prevalence of motion sickness was 43.4 % in car, 43.2 % on bus, 11.7 % on park swing, and 11.6 % on Ferris wheel. Like adults, most children report dizziness, nausea, or headache when their body is triggered by motion. And although some research claims motion sickness doesn’t start until age 2, I’ve certainly learned from parents that some young children don’t love riding in the car and show it. More preventing and treating it:

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Very Sunny Out: 5 Tips For Safe Sunscreen Use

sunshine in seattleIt’s really very sunny out these days in the Pacific Northwest. And although summer can be shorter up here we certainly compensate with idyllic, cloudless days. However, many of us can be out of practice protecting our skin. I’ve seen lots of tan lines and sunburns in clinic this summer. In fact, those of us living in Northern climates may carry an additional risk when it comes to the sun. One rarely known risk factor for skin cancer is living in a cool climate but vacationing near the equator. The reason? If your skin is unaccustomed to living in the sun, you tend to burn more when entering those areas of more intense sunshine.

Further, many people get confused about cool weather and sunshine. Sun intensity and Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVA and UVB rays) have nothing to do with temperature. No difference in intensity if it’s 60 or 80 degrees out when it comes to the sun’s effect. Reality is people burn more when it’s 80 simply because they have less clothing on and more skin exposed. As a reminder, UVB radiation varies throughout the year (it’s most intense during summer) and UVA radiation is constant throughout all the seasons.

Although the best ways to protect your family’s skin from the sun remain seeking shade (umbrellas, trees, etc), planning long-lasting activities in the sun outside of the peak sun times (not between 10am and 4pm) and dressing right for the the occasion by wearing sun protective clothing (hats and/or UV shirts often labeled “UPF” for ultraviolet protective factor). Research finds that those who rely solely on sunscreen tend to burn more, so sunscreen needs to be thought of as just one tool. 5 tips: Read full post »

Living In A Museum: Safe Medication Storage

OTC Safety Info Where Do Kids Find MedsJune is a lot of things to me this year: the month I turned 40 (yipeee!), the earnest start of summer, the beginnings of an awesome USA performance in the 2014 World Cup and also National Home Safety Month. Of course it may be easy to make time to celebrate turning 40 or to watch the taped game where USA beats Ghana (go team!) but there really is one thing we should move into position numero uno. Can you make your house more museum-like, at least when it comes to medication safety this summer? Here’s why it should be placed at the top of the list.

A quick digression: no question I’d really like to live in a museum — unlike lots of others, it seems — I’m one of those people who hates a messy house although our house really does get highly disorganized (I find errant legos in every room/every day, our beds aren’t always made and may I ask where in the world do all the dirty socks come from?). I would prefer a museum-like home, beautiful stone on the floor, gorgeous lighting, thoughtful works of art on the wall and no distracting debris. A clean surface on which to place my purse when I walk in the door would be a good compromise! When I looked at the Up & Away tools that helps provide tips for parents on medication safety at home it reminded me that yes- museum living is definitely what I want (I mean, heck, look at that kitchen!!). HOWEVER, the realities of having 2 kids and limited time to keep organizational systems in check I’m going to have to settle for my not-always-perfectly cleaned floors, the walls of childhood art, the stacks and piles of mail and school forms, and the lighting I’ve got. But one thing I won’t sacrifice are the safety systems we’ve made to keep medications and toxins out of reach, even as our boys get older. Some data here reminded me I need to revisit our systems. Read full post »