‘prevention’

All Articles tagged ‘prevention’

Let Them Sleep, Start School Later

Over the past decade mounting evidence finds that teens are chronically sleep deprived and subsequently suffering significant health effects. Chronic sleep deprivation is becoming the norm for our high schoolers and is known to cause both mental and physical health challenges. In fact The National Sleep Foundation found that over 85% of high schoolers aren’t getting the 8-10 hours of sleep they need while over 50% of middle school students are already falling behind in their zzzzz’s.

The evidence is in: teens who don’t get enough sleep can have academic challenges, an increase risk for sleepiness-caused car accidents, inattention, risk for overweight, risk for anxiety, greater use of stimulants like caffeine or prescription medications, and mood disorders.

This is a biology thing not a laziness thing. That teenager who can’t get out of bed until 11am on the weekends is just tired and trying to catch up! Puberty changes all sorts of things in our life, one major biologic shift occurs in the brain as children morph into adults. Around the age of 12, instead of naturally falling asleep at 8 o’clock like children in middle childhood, tweens and teens’ sleep cycle shifts about 2 to 3 hours making it a real challenge to fall asleep prior to 10 or 11pm. That means those teens up and awake until 11pm are really just acting their age.

The causes of sleep loss for teens are complex. Early school start times, use of electronics, smartphones, and tablets interfere with sleep as do homework, extra-curricular activities, and sports. But so do misperceptions — the same research that found over 85% of HS students weren’t getting enough sleep also noted that >70% of parents to those tired teens felt their child was getting enough sleep! We have to make sleep a priority in our homes. Read full post »

On Motion Sickness

I really love this TEDEd video explaining motion sickness. What I find most helpful is the admission that we humans still know very little about motion sickness, why gender differences exist (women get motion disturbance more often than men), and how to put a stop to it. No question children get motion sickness well before they’re old enough to tell us exactly how they feel. Often it’s screaming or fussing only in the car or a series of vomiting episodes that clues us in. A few tips for families, planning that last-minute summer road trip, to help support children who are prone to get sick in the car, on the train, at the park, or up in the air during a bumpy ride.

Motion Sickness In Children

  • Disconnect: Know that motion sickness comes about when there is a disconnect between what our eyes see, what the fluid in our inner ears knows about our position and direction, what our skin senses, and what our muscles feel while we’re positioned wherever we are. This disconnect in all these sensors around our body leaves the brain “confused” and for unknown reasons we’re left feeling nauseated, uneasy or achy. This can happen quickly and can happen even on a swing at the park. It really doesn’t take a jet airplane or an automobile driving quickly on a curvy road to elicit this unease and malaise. This can happen in the back yard! There’s often another disconnect, for those who don’t get motion sickness there is often little insight into how horrible a child or adult can feel while experiencing this. This reality, of course, only increases the displeasure for the person ill. But know this, some experts observe that everyone, given enough mismatch and motion–say a group of people in a life-raft in turbulent seas–will get sick from motion.
  • Common: Motion sickness is fairly common with most reports stating that 1/4 to 1/3 of adults may experience it. In school-age children, a recent European study found the prevalence of motion sickness was 43.4 % in car, 43.2 % on bus, 11.7 % on park swing, and 11.6 % on Ferris wheel. Like adults, most children report dizziness, nausea, or headache when their body is triggered by motion. And although some research claims motion sickness doesn’t start until age 2, I’ve certainly learned from parents that some young children don’t love riding in the car and show it. More preventing and treating it:

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Fitbit Motivation, From Anecdote To Evidence

I wear both a FitBit and Shine Health Tracking Device on my wristOn Sunday night I left the house for a quick run. It was 9:20pm. It’s been years since I ran in the dark and likely a decade or more since running at night made any sense in my life. As every parent knows, we’re jailed in our houses around 8pm when the kids go to bed — if exercise hadn’t yet happened it gets pushed off until “tomorrow.”

Sunday night the Fitbit was 100% of the driving force behind me putting on my running shoes. I was about 500 steps shy of my 10,000 step goal and couldn’t go to bed, in good faith, that close to success (see image below).

Crazy or perfect? I wear 2 devices now. This month I added a Fitbit to my wrist; I’d already been wearing my Shine for a year or so and had certainly had seem improvements in self-awareness, a better understanding of my sedentary days at work, and the rewards of having daily data about my movement. I exercise a lot more now compared with a year ago. The reasons are multi-factoral of course (turning 40, losing loved ones, craving exercise) but the device has unequivocally helped. Adding the Fitbit to my wrist was designed to help hone an understanding for the level of consistency 2 devices can have (on the same person). The other reason was Fitbit would allow me to “compete” and/or compare daily totals with my husband. This is 40, my friends.

Seattle Mama Doc Tweet

before and after runNo question that in short order the Fitbit has helped me understand the difference between my movement and my activity, something I’d not really spent time on previously. For example, Sunday was a day of housekeeping. I’d moved around all day doing errands, going to store to buy hangers, cleaning the closet, goofing around with the boys, but I hadn’t been out for a run or bike ride — my first glance my Fitbit was about to give me a false sense of security. I nearly got my goal (in steps) without any real, active “exercise.” Like almost 1/2 of American adults, I hadn’t gotten the 30-60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (walking briskly, running, cycling, swimming) we all crave and need. All the sudden it dawned on me — it wasn’t just the number of steps I’d had on Sunday that mattered it truly had to be about how I got them. I was 500 steps shy of my goal of 10,000 steps but the Fitbit also told me I’d only had 2 minutes, the whole day, of active time. YIPES! Read full post »

It’s Hot Out But The Water Is Still Cold

igram lifejacket jumpThere have been 4 teen drownings around here just in the last week. I’m left with a pit in my stomach that as the sun shines and our region heats up we lose children to preventable injuries at rapid-fire pace. This happens every year; drowning is the 2nd leading cause of injury-related death in childhood (and the #1 cause of injury death in toddlers between age 1 to 4). In general there are two groups of people who drown the most: toddlers and teens. The spaces and places (and circumstances) for typical drownings for those groups are different but the foundation is the same: water, especially cold water, is always lovely on a hot day but always poses unacknowledged dangers.

This really isn’t meant to be a finger-waggy post. This is meant to inform us all with refreshers to the opportunity we all have when living near water with children in our midst. Forward these reminders to anyone you can think of who may benefit. We may never know if we prevent a death but it sure is worth the effort to keep trying…

Drowning Statistics & Risks:

  • Drowning is second leading cause of injury-related death in children in our country following motor-vehicle crashes. In general, the risks come from improper attention to the risks of water, improper supervision, and surprise (i.e. the current moves faster than expected, the water is colder, the child toddles into the pool while no one sees in a matter of seconds).
  • Toddlers AND teens are the most likely groups of people to drown; risks are higher for boys than for girls. Toddlers drown because of improper supervision, teens tend to drown because of improper awareness of risks. In fact it’s also where you are that matters. Data has found, for example, that you’re at a 6-fold increase risk for drowning when visiting a friend’s home with a pool.
  • Cold water, alcohol & drug use (for teens or supervising adults), and distractions increase risk for a drowning or near-drowning event.

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CT Scans And Cancer Risk

T8--approx CT scan” Yesterday’s news,” my husband said when I shared a study published, well, yesterday. Yet what we do with yesterday’s information is of course the news today. A JAMA Pediatrics article found that the use of pediatric CT scans rose in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. Further, research shows that these CT scans can increase risk for future cancer diagnoses. Authors calculated the risk: they estimate that for every 4 million pediatric CT scans preformed annually, some 4800 children will go on to develop cancer as a result. Like many studies published this decade, the study came with warnings for radiologists, pediatricians, and parents.  I have tips for parents and doctors included below.

CT scans use radiation and radiation exposure is linked to cancer.

That being said, CT scans also save lives and we’re learning to use them more judiciously. Since 2007, rates of CT scans in children are declining. Don’t let these risks and media reports today cause you refuse or forego diagnostic CT scans your children need. We just have to be strong advocates and smarter about how we use CT scans. Read full post »

Value Of Well Baby Check-Ups


Some new data published in the American Journal of Managed Care finds increased value in preventative well baby and toddler check-ups. Not because it keeps pediatricians busy, but really because it potentially can save suffering and hospitalizations for young children that would otherwise hopefully not occur.

A study published this month evaluated over 20,000 babies and toddlers in the Group Health network. They reviewed medical charts to study both rates of hospitalizations and rates that families showed up for their well baby check-ups. They specifically evaluated rates of hospitalizations for what they call, “ambulatory-care sensitive hospitalizations,” in which access to routine care could potentially avoid an illness developing that would require a child to be admitted to the hospital for treatment. Here’s more and how you can find low cost medical or dental clinics for yourself or your child and get help applying for health insurance:

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Salmonella From Food, Frogs, And Fido

African dwarf frog fr CDCSalmonella infections affect children more frequently and more severely than adults. Although most salmonella infections arise from contaminated or undercooked food (chicken, eggs, beef, and dairy typically), reptiles, pet foods and now amphibians are an important source of infection to keep in mind for our children.

Today, a new study published in Pediatrics links Salmonella infections to pet frogs here in the US. This is the first study to detail amphibians as an important source of Salmonella infections. 8 tips for preventing Salmonella are at the end of this post.

New research tracked an outbreak of a particular strain of Salmonella between 2008 and 2011. In 44 states, researchers identified 376 cases of Salmonella in children and adults with an average age of 5 years. Over 2/3 (69%) of the cases were in children under age 10. The source of these salmonella bacteria was tracked to a breeding facility that shipped an aquatic frog, the African dwarf frog, to pet stores and people around the country. Although the African dwarf frogs are not always handled, many people were presumably infected from touching the frog’s contaminated water bowl or may have been infected when aquariums and equipment were cleaned in sinks also used for food preparation.
The study uncovered an important truth:

Few patients and families were aware that Salmonella could be spread from reptiles and amphibians.

Even when we parents are aware, some children still get infected. It’s essential that children who handle reptiles and amphibians always wash their hands after playing with the pets or help clean or care for their aquariums. This data hits close to home as my son had Salmonella gastroenteritis when he was just 4 months of age after a trip to Central America. Read full post »

Can Soda Companies Help Fight Obesity?

Screen Shot 2013-01-28 at 10.38.06 AMI’m curious what you think. Do you think companies that make, sell, and market soda can improve the challenges we face with obesity? I’m asking sincerely. I was struck by the Coca-Cola ad (below) recently released. I’m a pediatrician and I’ve never worked for a beverage company or any company that sells products to children. I don’t like that these companies market salty, fatty, sugary products to children. As a pediatrician, I would suggest I’m very biased. The food industry spends $15 BILLION marketing and advertising to children every year. Food advertising, directly to children, is known to increase rates of obesity. Even familiarity with fast-food ads has been found to be problematic. As parents, this isn’t hard to believe; I’ve seen my boys introduced to a product on TV and then ask for it at the grocery store. Because of my bias, I’m asking you—do you think companies like Coca-Cola and Pepsi can help?

As the obesity problem persists, strategies have turned to protocols and regulation. Today, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released it’s first policy on managing weight-related diabetes. And in the past few years, the American Heart Association released a statement asking for increased regulation on advertising high-calorie, low nutrient-dense (“junk”) foods to children. In 2006, The Institutes of Medicine (IOM) said, “Food marketing intentionally targets children who are too young to distinguish advertising from truth and induces them to eat high-calorie, low-nutrient (but highly profitable) “junk” foods; companies succeed so well in this effort that business-as-usual cannot be allowed to continue.”  Similar sentiments are shared by the American Psychological Association, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), Children Now, the American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The public, too. Last fall, the majority (67%) of international readers polled in The New England Journal of Medicine believed we should regulate sugary-beverage consumption. This on the heels of New York’s regulation banning sale of large sugary drinks. This isn’t just about a tax. Can these companies help? Read full post »

Have You Been In To See Dr. Google?

Screen Shot 2013-01-15 at 9.45.29 AMFor practicing physicians, there’s a tricky balance in believing that the internet can help save lives.

I’m a doctor who encourages families to look up health info online and one who believes technology will afford improved partnerships. Yet, when we’re in the old-fashioned exam room, there isn’t always a place for the internet. Many clinics block video-streaming sites and don’t allow for traditional email exchanges between clinicians and patients. It’s hard to “send” patients information discussed during the visit. In the 10 or 20 minutes we have together, time is precious. Truth be told, health care remains wary of doctors and patients communicating when they’re not in exam room. Most insurers won’t reimburse or pay for electronic communication between patients and their clinicians. So doctors are often forced to bring you into the office to provide expertise. New data today may help change this paradigm. Reality is, many of us are using the internet as a tool for health care.

For at least 1/3 of American adults, the internet is a diagnostic tool

Yet, it’s not just insurers who may be wary of online info. Recently I read a patient review (online) from a parent who was frustrated I’d encouraged them to read the content on this blog. The comment implied that perhaps I was “pushing it.” And that’s the tricky part–when I first started writing this blog I was bashful to mention it in clinic. I wanted patients to feel comfortable NOT pressured. But now that I have over 350 blog posts showcasing research and pediatric health information it’s tantamount that I share it.  I mean, if I’m in the midst of a 15-minute visit and we touch on topics like getting a carbon monoxide monitor, the choking game, the Tdap shot, and the effects of TV on their kid’s developing brain, how could I not augment a parent or teens’ understanding by offering more information online?

Numerous studies find that what parents learn in the exam room with doctors isn’t retained. That’s where Dr Google comes in. Read full post »

You Need A Carbon Monoxide Alarm

There’s a new law today in Washington State requiring carbon monoxide (CO) alarms in apartments, condos, and single-family residences. You should have a CO detector on every level of your home (more tips below). I know you’ve heard that CO poisoning is not only dangerous but also potentially fatal. We also often hear horrific stories of accidental deaths from carbon monoxide after natural disasters. A recent study found disaster related deaths are particularly common (your power’s wiped out so you bring in a generator or grill for heating or cooking and get exposed to CO). Using a generator indoors is the most common cause of CO poisoning, followed by use of a grill. Unfortunately, over 400 people die in the US each year from CO poisoning—all of which could be avoided with proper education and detection in the home. The odd thing is that we often get to see CO toxicity play out on our favorite television shows (think Mad Men)~ the ever-again scene where someone clogs up the exhaust pipe of a car with a banana or handkerchief and dies (or attempts to) due to the toxic fumes.

One generator running inside a home, garage, or basement creates the equivalent carbon monoxide of 6 idling cars. Precisely why a generator needs to be 20 feet from inside spaces and away from open windows/doors. Carbon monoxide is found in combustion fumes–it can be produced by cars and trucks, small gasoline engines, stoves, lanterns, burning charcoal and wood, gas ranges, and heating systems. You likely know all this. But…

The thing to know: carbon monoxide in and of itself is more dangerous to babies and young children. Infants in utero, newborns, and young children process carbon monoxide differently, have more severe reactions, and may see effects faster than adults. If you and your young child were in a room that was filling with carbon monoxide, it’s your baby or child that would suffer the consequences first. They may not know how to tell you about their complaints and if they were sleeping you may not even know. Hence all of us needing a CO detector.

carbon monoxide teaching fr CDC

The Science of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning:

The red blood cells in our blood circulate oxygen to all of our muscles and organs for survival. When carbon monoxide (CO) is in the air it can function as a disguised villain. When carbon monoxide is inhaled into the lungs via contaminated air, the red blood cell picks up the CO instead of just oxygen. Each carbon monoxide molecule that attaches to a red blood cell displaces a spot for oxygen. Therefore the circulating red blood cells go around the body without oxygen causing improper circulation. Organ failure and death can result after higher and higher level of our cells are bound to CO instead of oxygen.

The graphic is from the Centers For Disease Control (CDC)’s comprehensive review on CO poisoning.

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