‘shots’

All Articles tagged ‘shots’

3 Shots: Protect Against Cancer

It’s 2014 and it’s a reality that you can protect a child, teen or young adult from a cancer-causing virus with a series of just three shots. About 79 million Americans are currently infected with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a virus that can cause warts but also lead to cancer (anogenital and/or throat cancers). Most data find 14 million new people are infected with the virus every year. Most of the time, HPV enters our body and our immune system gets rid of it on its own, however sometimes HPV causes trouble at the cellular level. Fortunately there’s a safe and effective way to stop the spread of HPV, prevent some strains of the virus from ever causing cellular changes in our body and ultimately prevent the related cancers it triggers: the HPV vaccine.

HPV Vaccine Is Safe

The HPV vaccine isn’t really “new” anymore. Between June 2006-March 2014, approximately 67 million doses of HPV vaccines were distributed. The vaccine is made from one protein from the HPV virus, designed to trigger a protective immune response; the vaccine cannot cause HPV infection or cancer. A recent study by Pediatrics found the HPV vaccine to be not only effective, but long-lasting. The study followed vaccinated girls and boys for eight years and showed evidence of durability; the HPV-antibodies remained at high levels over the years after immunization. Read full post »

Knowing The Benefit Of MMR Shot

A new study out today in Pediatrics reminds us that parents want information about the direct benefits shots have on their baby’s health and wellbeing. Not surprising, of course, but a good reminder for pediatricians, parents, and those who speak out on the value of vaccines to remember that primary motivation for parents in getting immunizations is to protect their child, not just protect the community. As a mom I feel the same way. As vaccination rates have decreased in pockets around the US these past few decades, and as non-medical vaccine exemptions (refusing immunization on philosophical grounds) increase, and as media coverage around the benefits of immunizing “the herd” remain a mainstay, returning to the individual benefit of vaccines makes sense. Parents really want to do what is best for their baby. They want to hear how and why to protect their baby. Vaccines do that.

The MMR vaccine protects your child from getting the diseases measles, mumps, or rubella or the complications caused by these diseases. After receiving this vaccine, your child will not miss school or activities due to these illnesses and will be able to play with friends during an outbreak.   — The message shared with parents in the research study

I like this study for two reasons:

  1. Parents Want To Know Why: In the study researchers went right to parents, mostly moms (80% of participants) between age 18 and 65 years of age, to share messages about MMR shot benefits to their baby and society and then gauged their intention to immunize their baby with MMR at 1 year of age. What I also really liked was the way the benefit was framed around a child’s wellness and their ability to play and be with friends!
  2. It Serves Up a Great Reminder:  We pediatricians, nurse practitioners, family docs, RNs, and MAs need to tell families what shots children are getting and we really need to stress WHY they are getting them in the context of life. We need to make the protection a shot provides relevant every time we order and administer the vaccine!

Pediatrics Study:

In the study, researchers compared about 800 parent responses in 4 groups (each group had about 200 parents). In one group parents got information only from CDC Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) about benefits/risks of MMR vaccine. In another group, parents got information about benefits of MMR shot to their baby and the VIS information. In a third group, parents got information about MMR benefit to baby and to population, along with VIS. And in the last group parents got information only about benefits of the shot for protecting the community along with the VIS.

Results: Parents were more likely to report their intention to get their infants the MMR shot when they heard about the benefit of the shot directly to their baby or when they heard about benefits directly to their baby and the population. When they heard only about risks/benefits of shot and risks/benefit to society, the information presented did not increase their intention to get the shot.

Conclusions: Parents are more likely to want to get their child up to date on immunizations if they know direct benefit on their child’s ability to go to school and play and be with friends.

Let’s focus on what matters to parents to young children when we talk about vaccine benefits — health, wellness, play, friendship, and opportunity.

For more on benefits of MMR shot for children and the diseases it prevents read here. Immunizations do cause optimism…

A Voice For Vaccines

Karen ErnstThis is a guest blog from Karen Ernst. Karen is the mother of three boys and a military wife.  She sometimes teaches English and enjoys advocating for and working with children. She is the co-leader of Voices for Vaccines and one of the founders of the Minnesota Childhood Immunization Coalition.


The preschool class party was one of the last hurrahs for my then five year old. The entire family attended, including our ten-day old newborn, whose only interest was nursing. His lack of other interests turned out to be good fortune because another mother-son duo at the party were contagious with chicken pox and began showing symptoms the day after the party. Had the mother held my newborn or the child played with him, the results could have been fatal for our son.

Having immunized my older child, who played with his contagious friend, I was relieved that no one in our home contracted chicken pox and no one passed it on to our new baby.

While I was angry when the mother revealed that she’d purposely left her son unvaccinated against chicken pox, I felt proud that I had chosen well, I had protected both my children, and I had understood and agreed with what public health officials had proposed: that children need the varicella vaccine. I had both done what I was supposed to, and nothing bad happened. So that’s the end of the story, right?

Read full post »

Parents May Hesitate On Teen Vaccines

Since 2005, teen immunizations have been recommended at the 11 year-old well child check-up but rates of teens who keep up to date on their shots lag. In an ideal community, 90% of us would be up to date on shots to prevent disease spread most effectively.  Back in 2007, teen recommendations were expanded to include HPV vaccine for girls. In 2011, both boys and girls were recommended to get HPV shots. Although the majority of teens get the Tdap shot (tetanus and whooping cough booster) only around 1/3 of teen girls are up-to-date on their HPV shot when most recently surveyed.

Teen Shots Recommend at age 11:

  • Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis shot)
  • MCV4 (meningitis shot)
  • HPV (human papillomavirus shot, requires 3 doses over 6 months)

A Pediatrics Study on teen shots revealed that parents may not get their teen shots due to concerns about safety or not understanding the shot was recommended. Not all shots are required by schools; I think some families tend to experience that as an endorsement for the shot being less important. In the survey conducted between 2008-2010, researchers sought to understand trends and rationale for lagging shots: Read full post »

2013 Immunization Update

Screen Shot 2013-01-30 at 7.03.42 AMNew immunization recommendations come out every February. They’re released to assist parents and clinicians in keeping all children up to date and protected from life-threatening infections. The update reflects new science and discoveries, while improving the schedule of vaccines due to outbreaks of infection or improved understandings of how to protect children better amidst a potential resurgence.

This is relevant to every parent: every year the rules for what-children-need-which-shots-when can change. Just when we think all of our children are “up to date,” new science evolves that potentially changes their immunization status. For example, read about new information published this year for the Tdap shot–how & why our children’s immunity fades.

We have to do our best to avoid making false promises to children about “not needing a shot” when they go in to see the doctor.  Just when we do, we find our child is due for a necessary booster or missed vaccine. Commonly, children are missing the last shot in a series of immunizations (for example, to protect children and teens from HPV, they need 3 total shots or children haven’t had the second chicken pox shot). In my opinion, the promises broken break trust with our children and amp fear around going to the doctor. Much of the anguish around shots is the anticipation of them. So an update…

2013 Immunization Recommendations And Reminders:

  • This 2013 immunization recommendations have been simplified into one chart for all children from birth to age 18 (used to be 2 charts). It details  the timing for shots and the necessary intervals between doses for all children. The detailed footnote section explains rationale for all the rules. In my opinion the 2013 schedule is easier to read and easier to understand.
  • Tdap for every pregnant woman, every pregnancy: the biggest change to the schedule is the recommendation that all pregnant women get a Tdap shot (protecting against tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis or “whooping cough”) in the 2nd half of each and every pregnancy. This recommendation was made due to surges in whooping cough infections, epidemics, and a 50-year high in positive cases. Because whooping cough is most risky to newborns we want pregnant women protected. Ninety percent of those who die from whooping cough are infants. The strategy to vaccinate during every pregnancy takes into count how quickly protection from the vaccine fades after we get it. And the reality the vaccine isn’t 100% effective. About 80% of those who get it are protected. The best way to protect us all is to have all children and adults up to date on their Tdap. Read full post »

People Are Dying From The Flu

Screen Shot 2013-01-08 at 12.45.43 PMInfluenza virus causes “the flu.” It’s a crummy cold that spreads easily causing high fever, body aches, runny nose, terrible cough, and rarely it can cause vomiting and diarrhea, too. The flu isn’t the “stomach flu.” It’s deadlier than that. It’s more dangerous for babies and young children, and for the elderly. It’s also particularly dangerous for those with asthma, diabetes, and people with neurologic or immune problems. This post is a bit of a plea: people are dying from the flu and there are ways we can potentially save others’ lives. Click through to read 5 myths about the flu and watch a 3-min interview I did for HLN television yesterday.

The bad news: We’re having a bad flu season. More people have the flu this year than at any time last year. This is early—flu usually peaks in Feb or March. The most dominate strain of flu that’s moving around the US is the strain called H3N2—it’s known to cause more serious disease. As of today, we have over 80% of our states reporting widespread circulating levels of flu. Here in Washington many people have been hospitalized from complications of the flu. Further, in Washington 6 people have died, one of them a child under the age of 12. A healthy 17 year-old died in Minnesota just this week. Flu is not just your “common cold,” it can be far worse. Eighteen children have already died this season. As of November, we didn’t even have 1/2 of our population with a flu shot. The goal to protect us all is 90%.

I’ve never had a family in clinic get influenza illness and then refuse the flu shot the following year.  They come in early and often for their shots. It’s that bad of an illness.

The good news: We have a vaccine for the virus that causes the flu. The flu shot and flumist nasal spray are effective and that H3N2 strain that we’re worried about, it’s in the flu shot and the nasal flu spray this year. It’s not too late to get a flu shot. You’ll be protected against the flu somewhere from 10 day to 14 days after getting it. Go out now and protect yourself and your family. By getting a shot you protect yourself, your children, and all those more vulnerable in our community unable to get the shot (those infants under 6 mo of age, those on chemo, or those with contraindications to the shot).

Read full post »

Baby Dies From Whooping Cough

camping out with babyNews of a whooping cough death in the Seattle area rang out yesterday. By afternoon, many of my patients in clinic had heard the news. Although the epidemic levels of whooping cough have gradually faded since a peak of cases here in May, the risk is still very real.

A newborn baby died from whooping cough on December 13th here in Washington State.

Newborn babies are at particularly elevated risk for serious complications from pertussis (whooping cough) infections. Unlike older children and adults who often have cough & coughing fits with vomiting, babies can have severe respiratory distress, pauses in breathing, or even stop breathing. Rarely it can be deadly.

Infants are most likely to catch whooping cough from a parent. We have to cocoon newborns everywhere: surround them with people who are vaccinated and less likely to spread whooping cough infection.

This tragic death serves up a reminder for we pediatricians, family docs, and clinicians everywhere to maintain our efforts and amp up our passion to keep babies surrounded by immunized family and friends. We can’t let up.

Are You Up To Date On Your Whooping Cough Shots?

More than anything, we need to ensure family members (mothers, fathers, grandparents, and siblings) all are up-to-date on their whooping cough shot. The shot is imperfect (meaning not everyone who gets the shot is always immune — most estimates find that 80% of us who get the shot are protected) and we know some of our immunity to whooping cough can fade year after year. So the more people immunized the less likely we are to have whooping cough in our community. Read full post »

HPV Shot Doesn’t Trigger Teens To Have Sex

In 2006, I entered pediatric practice. It was the same year that the Advisory Commission on Immunization Practice (ACIP) recommended to start giving 11 year-old girls the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. Therefore, I’ve really never practiced pediatrics (outside of my training) without the ability to offer up immunization and protection against HPV virus; I’ve been discussing this for about 6 years. We now give HPV shots to both boys and girls because it’s so common–about 50% of all adults who are sexually active will get one form of HPV in their lifetime.

HPV virus can come into our body and do no harm. But it also can come into our bodies and cause vaginal, penis, anal and oral/throat warts. Other strains of HPV also cause changes in the cervix that can lead to cervical cancer and can rarely lead to penile cancer and/or tongue/throat cancer. Teens and adults can get HPV from oral, vaginal, or anal sex. Condoms don’t provide 100% protection from getting it.

GREAT NEWS: Being protected (by the HPV shot) doesn’t trigger risky sexual behaviors in teens.

Nice to have an immunization to protect against the potential development of such disfiguring, embarrassing, and uncomfortable lesions. And what a windfall to have a vaccine that prevents cancer. I often say to my patients, “If my grandmother only knew that I’d see the day where we could prevent cancer.” I mean it—if she only could have seen the day (she died in the late 1980’s).

The reality is though, parents to teenage girls have consistently been hesitant in getting the HPV vaccine in my office.  Over the 6 years hesitancy around getting HPV vaccine has lessened, but many of my patients’ parents have told me they don’t want their girls or boys to feel that getting the shots is a green light for sexual activity. And many have worried that having their girls immunized will make them more likely to engage in earlier sexual activity. Read full post »

Whooping Cough Shot: Does It Last?

A study published today in The New England Journal of Medicine evaluated the duration of protection against whooping cough after children get the DTaP shot.  Researchers wanted to find out how long the shot lasts. DTaP shots are given to infants, toddlers, and kindergarteners (schedule below) to protect them from three infections (Diptheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis –whooping cough). After these childhood vaccines, we give a “booster” shot at age 11. Because we know that many babies who get whooping cough are infected by teens and adults, all teens and adults are now recommended to get a Tdap shot to protect themselves and those vulnerable against whooping cough.

As researchers seek to understand the recent epidemics of whooping cough in the US, they have found more and more that the causes of these epidemics are multifactorial. Not only is it unvaccinated populations that allow epidemics, it may be waning immunity from shots given previously and waning immunity to natural infection, as well. Previously, it’s been estimated that our immunity to whooping cough wanes anywhere between 4 and 20 years after we get whooping cough, and that it may wane 4 to 12 years after the shot.

A little history: back in the 1990’s we switched from using the “whole cell pertussis” shot to using a vaccine that is “acellular.” Some health officials have had concerns that this “acellular vaccine” may not protect children as long. Although it does a great job protecting infants and toddlers, it may not last as long as previous immunizations. Some have wondered how long the kindergarten shot protects our children…

Physicians at Kaiser Permanente reviewed information about children in California during the 2010 whooping cough outbreak. What they found may have significant effects on how to protect our children going forward: Read full post »

Idaho: Vaccine Safety, A Desert, And A Networked Community

I’ve just returned from a week in Idaho where I had the privilege to do a series of talks for the Idaho Department of Health (DOH) about using social media to communicate about vaccines. The best part of the week was all of the education I received. I traveled around the state (see those photos!), witnessed the DOH at work, connected with Idaho physicians & politicians & advocates & volunteers, and talked with many Idahoans about changing the understanding of vaccine science. Three times I heard Dr Melinda Wharton from the CDC present on vaccine safety. And more, in a matter of 4 days we talked with a clinician, nurse, or medical assistant from every single office in the state that provides vaccines to children. I mean, that’s a wow–a sincerely networked community circa 2012.

If all states had the opportunity to convene like they do in Idaho we’d really improve understanding, communication, and opportunities in health care surrounding vaccine safety and decision-making.

After arriving home to my boys, I’m compelled to share 3 things I learned in Idaho:

ONE:

I think it’s essential that we talk about the risks associated with vaccines when we give them–each and every time. Dr Wharton discussed known risks to vaccines and the science to support those risks. She also talked about inferred risks that aren’t backed up with science (autism, for example).

Take fainting: we know teens faint after shots sometimes. Read full post »