‘vaccines’

All Articles tagged ‘vaccines’

3 Shots: Protect Against Cancer

It’s 2014 and it’s a reality that you can protect a child, teen or young adult from a cancer-causing virus with a series of just three shots. About 79 million Americans are currently infected with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a virus that can cause warts but also lead to cancer (anogenital and/or throat cancers). Most data find 14 million new people are infected with the virus every year. Most of the time, HPV enters our body and our immune system gets rid of it on its own, however sometimes HPV causes trouble at the cellular level. Fortunately there’s a safe and effective way to stop the spread of HPV, prevent some strains of the virus from ever causing cellular changes in our body and ultimately prevent the related cancers it triggers: the HPV vaccine.

HPV Vaccine Is Safe

The HPV vaccine isn’t really “new” anymore. Between June 2006-March 2014, approximately 67 million doses of HPV vaccines were distributed. The vaccine is made from one protein from the HPV virus, designed to trigger a protective immune response; the vaccine cannot cause HPV infection or cancer. A recent study by Pediatrics found the HPV vaccine to be not only effective, but long-lasting. The study followed vaccinated girls and boys for eight years and showed evidence of durability; the HPV-antibodies remained at high levels over the years after immunization. Read full post »

Ouchless Flu Vaccine In 2014-2015

Influenza spray finalIt’s Flu “shot” season but thankfully not every vaccine hurts going in. This year your child may be offered either the “flu shot” or the flu nasal spray vaccine (ouchless!). This year most nurses and docs will encourage young children to get a nasal flu spray over the shot as recent data has found the nasal flu vaccine protects younger children better. Every year the flu vaccine is created to protect against influenza viruses predicted to spread and circulate in North America. We need the shot every year for two main reasons:

  1. Typically, different influenza virus circulate around the world from year to year. Over 100 international centers maintain year-round surveillance to determine and predict which strain will cause human infections. The information is used to forecast the recipe for the vaccine here at home. This year the strains (types) of influenza in the shot and nasal spray are the same as last year (2013-2014).
  2. Protection Fades. When you get a flu vaccine you stimulate the immune system to create protection against the strains of the virus in the vaccine. That immunity (the antibodies that are created) tends to fade and wane in your bloodstream after about 6-12 months. Therefore, even if you got the flu vaccine last year you really want your family to have it again this year so it protects you through the winter influenza season which can continue late into the springtime but tends to peak in February or March.

The flu vaccine contains either three (trivalent) or four (quadrivalent) strains of influenza. There is no official recommendation for one over the other. Flu vaccine is recommended for all children over 6 months of age who have no contraindication to the vaccine.

Worth noting: If the thought of needles deters you from getting the vaccine for your child or your family, Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV), a nasal spray, is a great option for those age 2 to 49 years. In fact, there’s data to suggest the nasal flu vaccine is more effective in protecting children from influenza in young childhood. Recommendations this year include a push to have children between 2 and 8 years of age immunized with the nasal spray whenever possible. If the nasal isn’t available, the shot should be given — no reason to wait.

About 20,000 children younger than 5 years old are hospitalized from flu every year  — form CDC “Which Flu Vaccine Should Children 2 to 8 Years Old Get?”

Information about nasal flu spray from CDC, Healthy Children and my “Debunking 5 Myths about the Flu

Who Can Get The Nasal Flu Vaccine?

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The Link Between Vaccines And Optimism

Yesterday morning there was a public Freudian slip. It was perfect. During an interview on the Today Show about “hot button” health issues the team addressed concerns about myths related to the causes of autism. Autism spectrum disorder, now estimated in 1 of 68 children, is a brain condition causing challenges with how children communicate, behave and relate with others. Autism spectrum disorder is thought to be caused by a mix of genetic risk, potentially starting inutero, and potentially influenced by environmental factors. There is so much more research needed to understand causes (for cures). In the past some have pointed to vaccines as a cause of autism although that theory has been debunked, disproven, and refuted again and again. But here’s what happened on the show. The interviewer addressed the topic and said, “We hear a lot about it in the media, that is, vaccines causing optimism….”

Now it was a misspeak, which of course happens to us all, all the time. But it got me thinking, we need to share this real link  like wildfire — the link between vaccines and optimism. We moms, we dads, we pediatricians, we nurses, we family doctors, we community members, we must speak up. Share this incredible fortune, peer-to-peer, the reality that indeed living now in the 21st century that yes, vaccines are linked to optimism.

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Something In The Air: It’s Measles

Something is in the air right now. There’s a strange mix of vaccine-preventable illness sweeping the country (measles) and a strange bump in media coverage for celebrities and vocal opponents to tested and recommended vaccine schedules. Part of me thought we might be done with that but pageviews, clicks, and views all sell.

My hope is the coincidence of coverage and outbreaks is just that, a coincidence. But as a mom, pediatrician, author and media reporter, the view from here is unsettling. We can’t prove that mishandled media coverage is changing the way we immunize our children (or at least I haven’t seen the data) and how parents protect them, but there are moments like this it feels it’s possible that trust is simply being eroded with this 24-hour online/TV/print news cycle. Parents might be vulnerable to bad medicine when gowned as good business. A couple of examples:

Two weeks ago Kristin Cavallari (a wife to an NFL player and reality TV star) went on Fox News to discuss her career (and parenting) and ended up discussing her theories on a group of vaccine refusers and autism. Perhaps talking about medical theories is a really good model for accelerating a career? Next up was Huffington Post where she dropped the bomb, “’I’ve read too many books’ to vaccinate my child.” I suspect she’s yet to read mine. Particularly chapter number 57 entitled Measles In America. Read full post »

2013-2014 Flu Is Here

Influenza December 2013

Influenza currently has widespread activity here in Washington and fortunately the news media has really picked up the story the last couple of days. I say fortunately, because as we know more about flu in our community, the better we can work to protect our families. There’s no question clinic was full of coughs and colds yesterday!

At of the end of last week, the CDC reported that 25 states in the US have widespread influenza (see above map). In addition, public health officials confirm that H1N1 Influenza A is causing more serious, sometimes deadly disease in young adults. This post is simply a reminder that flu is here in our communities, work, and schools. The best way to reduce the risk of serious influenza infection is still to get a flu shot. Particularly if you’re a middle-aged adult (!!), as young adults are bearing a particular burden of serious disease this season. In fact,there have already been a number of deaths in WA state. Many of the individuals who died were unvaccinated.

This is still true: pregnant women, young children, those over 65 years, and anyone with underlying medical conditions are at higher risk for serious infection from influenza. Read full post »

Hepatitis A Outbreak: A Vaccine For That

frozen smoothie berriesThe CDC declared an outbreak of Hepatitis A over the weekend that has affected over 30 people in 5 states. Preliminary information confirms the source of the outbreak stems from organic frozen berries that were sold at Costco stores (including stores in Washington) yet sickened people thus far are in Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California. No cases have been reported in Washington to date. The berries: Townsend Farms Organic Anti-Oxidant Blend, a frozen berry and pomegranate seed mix, have now been pulled from shelves and people who purchased these berries from February through May are being contacted.

The amazing thing about this outbreak: there’s been no reported cases of Hep A in children under age 18.

In the United States, Hepatitis A typically spreads through contaminated food handled by someone with the infection. Rates of Hepatitis A infection tops 5,000-10,000 cases annually in the US while they are far higher in the developing world because city water sources can get contaminated (see below). Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended before international travel.

The lack of children with infections from this outbreak is logical and potentially illustrative.

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Modern Parenthood, Vaccines, And Myth With Mnookin

panicThis Tuesday evening, I’m joining Seth Mnookin at Town Hall in Seattle to discuss vaccines, modern parenthood, and (mis)information about vaccinations online. Although you may know Seth Mnookin secondary to his crucial role in the Boston Marathon Bombings story this past week, at his other day job he’s the co-director of the graduate program in science writing at MIT. He’ll be here in Seattle because he is also the author of a powerful book, Panic Virus, that details the history of vaccine hesitancy in the US.

A True Story of Medicine, Science, and Fear.

Although the book sits on the nonfiction shelf, it reads like a thriller. Think Contagion meets John le Carre´.  I’m not exaggerating here: when I first read the book 2 years ago, I pulled a near-all-nighter because I couldn’t put it down. I don’t think that’s because I’m a pediatrician, I believe I couldn’t put it down because I’m a mom.

I met Seth nearly 2 years ago and he signed my scribbled-in copy of his extraordinary book. Panic Virus changed my understanding of vaccine hesitancy. There are parts of the book that caused my stomach to drop and certainly parts of the book that made me worry. Read full post »

A Voice For Vaccines

Karen ErnstThis is a guest blog from Karen Ernst. Karen is the mother of three boys and a military wife.  She sometimes teaches English and enjoys advocating for and working with children. She is the co-leader of Voices for Vaccines and one of the founders of the Minnesota Childhood Immunization Coalition.


The preschool class party was one of the last hurrahs for my then five year old. The entire family attended, including our ten-day old newborn, whose only interest was nursing. His lack of other interests turned out to be good fortune because another mother-son duo at the party were contagious with chicken pox and began showing symptoms the day after the party. Had the mother held my newborn or the child played with him, the results could have been fatal for our son.

Having immunized my older child, who played with his contagious friend, I was relieved that no one in our home contracted chicken pox and no one passed it on to our new baby.

While I was angry when the mother revealed that she’d purposely left her son unvaccinated against chicken pox, I felt proud that I had chosen well, I had protected both my children, and I had understood and agreed with what public health officials had proposed: that children need the varicella vaccine. I had both done what I was supposed to, and nothing bad happened. So that’s the end of the story, right?

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Chickenpox Parties

pox party de-identifiedToday a Seattle mom advertised on an online parenting community that both of her children had chickenpox and then invited (non-vaccinated) children over for exposure. That’s the invite from 1:19pm today.

It turns out people are still having chickenpox parties.

Part of this makes my head spin. I just don’t get it, despite having had many families in my practice decline or hesitate or delay the chickenpox shot. I don’t think parents know what virus they are dealing with. After I posted this invitation on Twitter, I had physicians all over the country sharing stories (some included below).

Chickenpox can cause serious infection complications and rarely it can be lethal. Before the vaccine was approved and put into use in 1995, hundreds of children and adults died in this country every year from chickenpox and thousands were hospitalized. Although most young children get chickenpox and recover (only left with pox or scars) some children develop life-threatening secondary infections. Some children develop severe pneumonia (1 in 1000 children), some develop brain infections, and some children develop flesh-eating bacterial infections in their scabs that can even be fatal.

There is a safe, highly effective vaccine for chickenpox: Varicella Vaccine.

After I saw the pox party invite this afternoon I became slightly enraged. I mean, there are NUMEROUS children and adults in our community immunosuppressed and/or on chemo that could develop life-ending complications if exposed to varicella. And some families are intentionally exposing their children to a potentially harmful infection. After 2 doses of the chickenpox shot (varicella) 99% of patients are immune to chickenpox. Although some children can get chicken pox once vaccinated, they typically only have a few pox and do not develop severe side effects or die.

The pox party just shows me how much work we have to do to build trust in vaccines and vaccine-safety. My boys have both had 2 doses of the varicella vaccine. I’m thrilled they are protected and unlikely to ever get chickenpox or spread it to a community member who could be more at risk. They likely won’t get shingles, either.

Chickenpox Facts & Stats:

  • Varicella shots hurt upon injection (children tell me it really stings). We give the shot twice, once at 1 year of age and once at 4 years of age. The shot can commonly cause arm soreness and lowgrade fever. In less than 5% of children, a small rash develops, often around the site of the shot. That’s a good sign the immune system is being triggered to fight off future infections. The rash that can develop after the shot is not contagious. Read full post »

Parents May Hesitate On Teen Vaccines

Since 2005, teen immunizations have been recommended at the 11 year-old well child check-up but rates of teens who keep up to date on their shots lag. In an ideal community, 90% of us would be up to date on shots to prevent disease spread most effectively.  Back in 2007, teen recommendations were expanded to include HPV vaccine for girls. In 2011, both boys and girls were recommended to get HPV shots. Although the majority of teens get the Tdap shot (tetanus and whooping cough booster) only around 1/3 of teen girls are up-to-date on their HPV shot when most recently surveyed.

Teen Shots Recommend at age 11:

  • Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis shot)
  • MCV4 (meningitis shot)
  • HPV (human papillomavirus shot, requires 3 doses over 6 months)

A Pediatrics Study on teen shots revealed that parents may not get their teen shots due to concerns about safety or not understanding the shot was recommended. Not all shots are required by schools; I think some families tend to experience that as an endorsement for the shot being less important. In the survey conducted between 2008-2010, researchers sought to understand trends and rationale for lagging shots: Read full post »